CategoryThe Cyber Cops

IoT – Internet of Things


What is IoT? As we know from a previous article, Internet can be defined as a computer network consisting of all the computers in the world which are interconnected to each other. The word itself is a combination of the words “interconnected” and “network”. Traditionally, the Internet consisted just of the computers, and lately tables & mobile phones. But now-a-days we have devices apart from...



The word “Cryptocurrency” consists of the two words – “Cryptography” and “Currency”. “Currency” here refers to a money as medium of exchange. Bank notes and coins are a type of currency. “Cryptography” refers to secure communication in such a way that any person for whom the communication is not intended is not able to read the...

Hexadecimal Number System


Now that we are aware of how binary number system works, we need to have some knowledge about what hexadecimal system (or hex) is. Like decimal system has a total of 10 digits (0 to 9) and binary has just 2 digits (0 & 1) to represent any data, the hexadecimal system, as the name suggests, has 16 digits to represent any data. The set of digits is as follows:...

Data Storage on a Computer


Representing Numbers By now we know that the computer understands only OFF or ON (0 or 1) state. This corresponds to the Binary Number System, which has been explained previously in another article (click here to read). Since a computer can only understand 0 or 1, all data on a computer must be stored in that format only. Thus, understanding how data storage works on a computer becomes necessary...

VoIP – Voice over Internet Protocol


Voice over Internet Protocol is a method of placing phone calls using the Internet. The old digital telephony is very costly and placing an international call can cost a fortune. On the other hand, Internet is very cheap these days. So VoIP calls are virtually free. The old calling technology used Public Switched Telephone Network or Circuit Switched Network to place a call. Voice over Internet...

Amateur Radio (HAM Radio)


Amateur Radio or HAM radio is a device most of the people from law enforcement are familiar with. They are the handheld or car mounted devices used by police to communicate using radio waves. They are different from the radios common people use. Common people use Citizen Band radios which do not require any special license while HAM radios use Restricted band and in most of the countries require...

Binary Number System


A computer is an electronic device. It works on electrical signals. As soon as the power supply to a computer is shut off, it turns off. Any content that is stored on volatile memory is lost when the computer is OFF, and the content stored in non-volatile memory is persistent and can be accessed after again switching on the computer. Thus, a computer can have two states – ON & OFF. Let...

How a website works


Just as you view a file on your computer by opening it in software like Notepad or Microsoft Word, a website is a file on a server which you open/browse by using a specific software, i.e. a Web Browser. Some common examples of web browser are Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer. You can open the website in a web browser on your computer, interact with the content on the...



We learnt in an earlier article that encryption transforms a plaintext into ciphertext by applying an algorithm. The length of the ciphertext will usually be equal to or more than the length of the plaintext. This is used to hide the plaintext altogether. On the other hand, a hash is a slightly different concept. In hashing, when a hashing algorithm or hashing function is applied to a plaintext...

Mobile Internet Generations


Mobile phones are everywhere. Chances are that you are viewing this website on a mobile phone using mobile internet. If you are an average internet user you might have heard of the term 2G, 3G, 4G and so on with respect to mobile internet. The G here means the generation of cellphone network or mobile internet technology. The generation is defined as a set of telephone network standards. 1G: The...

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